Drush make

Drush make is an extension to drush that can create a ready-to-use drupal site, pulling sources from various locations. It does this by parsing a flat text file (similar to a drupal .info file) and downloading the sources it describes. In practical terms, this means that it is possible to distribute a complicated Drupal distribution as a single text file.

Among Drush make's capabilities are:

  • Downloading Drupal core, as well as contrib modules from drupal.org.
  • Checking code out from SVN, git, and bzr repositories.
  • Getting plain .tar.gz and .zip files (particularly useful for libraries that can not be distributed directly with drupal core or modules).
  • Fetching and applying patches.
  • Fetching modules, themes, and installation profiles, but also external libraries.

Usage

The drush make command can be executed from a path within a Drupal codebase or independent of any Drupal sites entirely. See the examples below for instances where drush make can be used within an existing Drupal site.

drush make [-options] [filename.make] [build path]

The .make file format

Each makefile is a plain text file that adheres to YAML syntax. See the included examples/example.make.yml for an example of a working makefile.

The older Drupal .info INI format is also supported. See examples/example.make for a working example.

Core version

The make file always begins by specifying the core version of Drupal for which each package must be compatible. Example:

core: 7.x

API version

The make file must specify which Drush Make API version it uses. This version of Drush Make uses API version 2

api: 2

Projects

An array of the projects (e.g. modules, themes, libraries, and drupal) to be retrieved. Each project name can be specified as a single string value. If further options need to be provided for a project, the project should be specified as the key.

Project with no further options:

projects:
  - drupal

Project using options (see below):

projects:
  drupal:
    version: "7.33"

Do not use both types of declarations for a single project in your makefile.

Project options

  • version

Specifies the version of the project to retrieve. This can be as loose as the major branch number or as specific as a particular point release.

    projects:
      views:
        # Picks the latest release.
        version: ~

    projects:
      views:
        version: "2.8"

    projects:
      views:
        version: "3.0-alpha2"

    # Shorthand syntax for versions if no other options are to be specified
    projects:
      views: "3.0-alpha2"

Note that version numbers should be enclosed in quotes to ensure they are interpreted correctly by the YAML parser.

  • patch

One or more patches to apply to this project. An array of URLs from which each patch should be retrieved.

    projects:
      calendar:
        patch:
          rfc-fixes:
            url: "http://drupal.org/files/issues/cal-760316-rfc-fixes-2.diff"
            md5: "e4876228f449cb0c37ffa0f2142"
      adminrole:
        # shorthand syntax if no md5 checksum is specified
        patch:
          - "http://drupal.org/files/issues/adminrole_exceptions.patch"
          - "http://drupal.org/files/issues/adminrole-213212-01.patch"
  • subdir

Place a project within a subdirectory of the --contrib-destination specified. In the example below, cck will be placed in sites/all/modules/contrib instead of the default sites/all/modules.

    projects:
      cck:
        subdir: "contrib"
  • location

URL of an alternate project update XML server to use. Allows project XML data to be retrieved from sites other than updates.drupal.org.

    projects:
      tao:
        location: "http://code.developmentseed.com/fserver"
  • type

The project type. Must be provided if an update XML source is not specified and/or using version control or direct retrieval for a project. May be one of the following values: core, module, profile, theme.

    projects:
      mytheme:
        type: "theme"
  • directory_name

Provide an alternative directory name for this project. By default, the project name is used.

    projects:
      mytheme:
        directory_name: "yourtheme"
  • l10n_path

Specific URL (can include tokens) to a translation. Allows translations to be retrieved from l10n servers other than localize.drupal.org.

    projects:
      mytheme:
        l10n_path: "http://myl10nserver.com/files/translations/%project-%core-%version-%language.po"
  • l10n_url

URL to an l10n server XML info file. Allows translations to be retrieved from l10n servers other than localize.drupal.org.

    projects:
      mytheme:
        l10n_url: "http://myl10nserver.com/l10n_server.xml"
  • overwrite

Allows the project to be installed in a directory that is not empty. If not specified this is treated as FALSE, Drush make sets an error when the directory is not empty. If specified TRUE, Drush make will continue and use the existing directory. Useful when adding extra files and folders to existing folders in libraries or module extensions.

    projects:
      myproject:
        overwrite: TRUE
  • translations

Retrieve translations for the specified language, if available, for all projects.

    translations:
      - es
      - fr
  • do_recursion

Recursively build an included makefile. Defaults to 'true'.

    do_recursion: false
  • variant

Which type of tarball to download for profiles. Valid options include: - 'full': complete distro including Drupal core, e.g. distro_name-core.tar.gz - 'projects': the fully built profile, projects defined drupal-org.make, etc., e.g. distro_name-no-core.tar.gz - 'profile-only' (just the bare profile, e.g. distro_name.tar.gz). Defaults to 'profile-only'. When using 'projects', do_recursion: false will be necessary to avoid recursively making any makefiles included in the profile.

    variant: projects

Project download options

Use an alternative download method instead of retrieval through update XML.

If no download type is specified, make defaults the type to git. Additionally, if no url is specified, make defaults to use Drupal.org.

The following methods are available:

  • download[type] = file

Retrieve a project as a direct download. Options:

url - the URL of the file. Required. The URL can also be a path to a local file either using the bare path or the file:// protocol. The path may be absolute or relative to the makefile.

md5, sha1, sha256, or sha512 - one or more checksums for the file. Optional.

request_type - the request type - get or post. post depends on http://drupal.org/project/make_post. Optional.

data - The post data to be submitted with the request. Should be a valid URL query string. Requires http://drupal.org/project/make_post. Optional.

filename - What to name the file, if it's not an archive. Optional.

subtree - if the download is an archive, only this subtree within the archive will be copied to the target destination. Optional.

  • download[type] = copy

Copies a project from a local folder. Options:

url - the URL of the folder. Required. The URL must be a path to a local folder either using the bare path or the file:// protocol. The path may be absolute or relative to the makefile.

 projects[example][type] = "profile"
 projects[example][download][type] = "copy"
 projects[example][download][url] = "file://./example"
  • download[type] = bzr

Use a bazaar repository as the source for this project. Options:

url - the URL of the repository. Required.

working-copy - If true, the checked out source will be kept as a working copy rather than exported as standalone files

  • download[type] = git

Use a git repository as the source for this project. Options:

url - the URL of the repository. Required.

branch - the branch to be checked out. Optional.

revision - a specific revision identified by commit to check out. Optional. Note that it is recommended on use branch in combination with revision if relying on the .info file rewriting.

tag - the tag to be checked out. Optional.

 projects[mytheme][download][type] = "git"
 projects[mytheme][download][url] = "git://github.com/jane_doe/mytheme.git"

refspec - the git reference to fetch and checkout. Optional.

 If this is set, it will have priority over tag, revision and branch options.

working-copy - If true, the checked out source will be kept as a working copy rather than exported as standalone files

  • download[type] = svn

Use an SVN repository as the source for this project. Options:

url - the URL of the repository. Required.

interactive - whether to prompt the user for authentication credentials when using a private repository. Allows username and/or password options to be omitted. Optional.

username - the username to use when retrieving an SVN project as a working copy or from a private repository. Optional.

password - the password to use when retrieving an SVN project as a working copy or from a private repository. Optional.

 projects:
   mytheme:
     download:
       type: "svn"
       url: "http://example.com/svnrepo/cool-theme/"

working-copy - If true, the checked out source will be kept as a working copy rather than exported as standalone files

Shorthand for download[url] available for all download types:

 projects:
   mytheme:
     download: "git://github.com/jane_doe/mytheme.git"

is equivalent to:

 projects:
   mytheme:
     download:
       url: "git://github.com/jane_doe/mytheme.git"

Libraries

An array of non-Drupal-specific libraries to be retrieved (e.g. js, PHP or other Drupal-agnostic components). Each library should be specified as the key of an array of options in the libraries array.

Example:

libraries:
  jquery_ui:
    download:
      type: "file"
      url: "http://jquery- ui.googlecode.com/files/jquery.ui-1.6.zip"
      md5: "c177d38bc7af59d696b2efd7dda5c605"

Library options

Libraries share the download, subdir, and directory_name options with projects. Additionally, they may specify a destination:

  • destination

The target path to which this library should be moved. The path is relative to that specified by the --contrib-destination option. By default, libraries are placed in the libraries directory.

    libraries:
      jquery_ui:
        destination: "modules/contrib/jquery_ui"

Includes

An array of makefiles to include. Each include may be a local relative path to the include makefile directory, a direct URL to the makefile, or from a git repository. Includes are appended in order with the source makefile appended last. As a result, values in the source makefile take precedence over those in includes. Use overrides for the reverse order of precedence.

Example:

includes:
  # Includes a file in the same directory.
  - "example.make"
  # Includes a file with a relative path.
  - "../example_relative/example_relative.make"
  # A remote-hosted file.
  - "http://www.example.com/remote.make"
  # A file on a git repository.
  - makefile: "example_dir/example.make"
    download:
      type: "git"
      url: "git@github.com:organisation/repository.git"
      # Branch could be tag or revision, it relies on the standard Drush git download feature.
      branch: "master"

The --includes option is available for most make commands, and allows makefiles to be included at build-time.

Example:

# Build from a production makefile, but add development and test projects.
$ drush make production.make --includes=dev.make,test.make

Overrides

Similar to includes, overrides will include content from other makefiles. However, the order of precedence is reversed. That is, they override the keys/values of the source makefile.

The --overrides option is available for most make commands, and allows overrides to be included at build-time.

Example:

#production.make.yml:
api: 2
core: 8.x
includes:
  - core.make
  - contrib.make
projects:
  custom_feature_A:
    type: module
    download:
      branch: production
      type: git
      url: http://github.com/example/custom_feature_A.git
  custom_feature_B:
    type: module
    download:
      branch: production
      type: git
      url: http://github.com/example/custom_feature_B.git

 # Build production code-base.
 $ drush make production.make.yml

 #testing.make
 projects:
   custom_feature_A:
     download:
       branch: dev/bug_fix
   custom_feature_B:
     download:
       branch: feature/new_feature

 # Build production code-base using development/feature branches for custom code.
 $ drush make /path/to/production.make --overrides=http://url/of/testing.make

Defaults

If all projects or libraries have identical settings for a given attribute, the defaults array can be used to specify these, rather than specifying the attribute for each project.

Example:

# Specify common subdir of "contrib"
defaults:
  projects:
    subdir: "contrib"
# Projects that don't specify subdir will go to the 'contrib' directory.
projects:
  views:
    version: "3.3"
  # Override a default value.
  devel:
    subdir: "development"

Overriding properties

Makefiles which include others may override the included makefiles properties. Properties in the includer takes precedence over the includee.

Example:

base.make

core: "6.x"
  views:
    subdir: "contrib"
  cck:
    subdir: "contrib"

extender.make

includes:
  - "base.make"
projects:
  views:
    # This line overrides the included makefile's 'subdir' option
    subdir: "patched"

    # These lines overrides the included makefile, switching the download type
    # to a git clone.
    type: "module"
    download:
      type: "git"
      url: "http://git.drupal.org/project/views.git"

A project or library entry of an included makefile can be removed entirely by setting the corresponding key to NULL:

  # This line removes CCK entirely which was defined in base.make
  cck: ~

Recursion

If a project that is part of a build contains a .make.yml itself, Drush make will automatically parse it and recurse into a derivative build.

For example, a full build tree may look something like this:

Drush make distro.make distro

distro.make FOUND
- Drupal core
- Foo bar install profile
  + foobar.make.yml FOUND
    - CCK
    - Token
    - Module x
      + x.make FOUND
        - External library x.js
    - Views
    - etc.

Recursion can be used to nest an install profile build in a Drupal site, easily build multiple install profiles on the same site, fetch library dependencies for a given module, or bundle a set of module and its dependencies together. For Drush Make to recognize a makefile embedded within a project, the makefile itself must have the same name as the project. For instance, the makefile embedded within the managingnews profile must be called "managingnews.make". If no makefile matching the project's name is found, Drush Make will look for a "drupal-org.make.yml" makefile instead. The file must be in the project's root directory. Subdirectories will be ignored.

Build a full Drupal site with the Managing News install profile:

core: 6.x
api: 2
projects:
  - drupal
  - managingnews

Use a distribution as core

core: 7.x
api: 2
projects:
  commerce_kickstart:
    type: "core"
    version: "7.x-1.19"

This behavior can be overridden globally using the --no-recursion option, or on a project-by-project basis by setting the do_recursion project parameter to 'false' in a makefile:

core: 7.x
api: 2
projects:
  drupal:
    type: core
  hostmaster:
    type: profile
    do_recursion: false

Testing

Drush make also comes with testing capabilities, designed to test Drush make itself. Writing a new test is extremely simple. The process is as follows:

  1. Figure out what you want to test. Write a makefile that will test this out. You can refer to existing test makefiles for examples. These are located in DRUSH/tests/makefiles.
  2. Drush make your makefile, and use the --md5 option. You may also use other options, but be sure to take note of which ones for step 4.
  3. Verify that the result you got was in fact what you expected. If so, continue. If not, tweak it and re-run step 2 until it's what you expected.
  4. Using the md5 hash that was spit out from step 2, make a new entry in the tests clase (DRUSH/tests/makeTest.php), following the example below. 'machine-readable-name' => array( 'name' => 'Human readable name', 'makefile' => 'tests/yourtest.make', 'messages' => array( 'Build hash: f68e6510-your-hash-e04fbb4ed', ), 'options' => array('any' => TRUE, 'other' => TRUE, 'options' => TRUE), ),
  5. Test! Run Drush test suite (see DRUSH/tests/README.md). To just run the make tests:

    ./unish.sh --filter=makeMake .

You can check for any messages you want in the message array, but the most basic tests would just check the build hash.

Generate

Drush make has a primitive makefile generation capability. To use it, simply change your directory to the Drupal installation from which you would like to generate the file, and run the following command:

drush generate-makefile /path/to/make-file.make

This will generate a basic makefile. If you have code from other repositories, the makefile will not complete - you'll have to fill in some information before it is fully functional.

Maintainers

Original Author

Dmitri Gaskin (dmitrig01)